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Leadership: is a procedure that is carried out through several people to gain authority over others in order to execute the goals. Laissez-faire: is a lider o manager as passive, nondirective, and inactive approach and relinquishes part or all the responsibilities to the members of the group. Autocratic Leader: the person is focused and maintains strong control, make decisions, and address all problem. Democratic-leader: this also called participative management. It based on the belief that every group member should have input into problem solving and the development of goals. Bureaucratic- leader: the leader believes that individuals are motivated by external forces. Relies on organizational polices and procedure for decision making. Delegation: is a process of transferring performance of a selected nursing task in a situation to an individual who is competent to perform that specific task. Illness: Abnormal process in which any aspect of a person’s functioning is diminished or impaired compared with his or her previous condition. Wellness: Dynamic state of health in which and individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimum balance between internal and external environments. Leader: A person or thing that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others. Health Belief Model: helps you understand factors influencing patient’s perceptions, belief, and behavior to plan care that will most effectively assist patient in maintaining or restoring health and preventing illness. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: is a model that the nurse use to understand the interrelationships of basic human needs. Primary prevention: is true prevention; it precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to patient considered physically and emotional healthy. Secondary prevention: is focuses on individual who are experiencing health problem or illnesses and are at risk for developing complications or worsening conditions. Tertiary prevention: occur when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible. It involves minimizing the effects of long-term disease or disability by intervention directed at preventing complications and deterioration. Risk factor reduction: is any situation, habit, social or environmental condition, physiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition, spiritual condition, or other variable that increases the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or accident. Acute illness: is usually reversible, has a short duration, and is often severe. Chronic illness: persists, usually longer than 6 months, is irreversible, and affects functioning in one or more systems. Health promotion: help patient maintain or enhance their present levels of health. Integrity: is being honest even when no one else is looking, is doing the right thing even when no one is around to see you do it, and doing things the way they should be done, when no one is looking, instead of doing shortcuts. Integrity is being upright, and true to ones beliefs. Preventive action: nursing actions directed toward preventing illness and promoting health to avoid the need for primary, secondary. Or tertiary health care. Self-concept: depends in part on body imagen and roles but also includes other aspects of psychology and spirituality. Is important in relationship with other family members. Self-efficacy: a concept include in social learning theory, refers to a person’s perceived ability to cessfully complete a task and many health promotions theories because it often is a strong predictor of healthy behaviors. Self-actualization: is a process of emotional and moral development that contributes to the more-being and well-being of each individual. The self-actualizing nurse is one who is engaged in the process of becoming true to herself and those with whom she goes through life’s experiences. Formal leadership: is a person exercising authority conferred upon him by the organization pursuant to the individual’s position in the organization. An example of formal leadership is the ability of a company president to exert control over employees, which is based upon his status as president of the company. Informal leadership: are individuals without formal title or authority who serve as advocates for the group, and heighten the contributions of others as well as their own, primarily through influence, relationship-building, knowledge and expertise. Supervision: is an activity that brings skilled supervisors and practitioners together in order to reflect upon their practice. It is a time for you, as a nurse or midwife, to think about your knowledge and skills and how they may be developed to improve care. Transactional leader: focuses on results, conforms to the existing structure of an organization and measures success according to that organization’s system of rewards and penalties. Transactional leaders have formal authority and positions of responsibility in an organization. This type of leader is responsible for maintaining routine by managing individual performance and facilitating group performance. Transformational leader: are sometimes call quiet leaders. They are the ones that lead by example. Their style tends to use rapport, inspiration, or empathy to engage followers. They are known to possess courage, confidence, and the willingness to make sacrifices for the greater good. Management: is a person responsible for supervising and motivating employees and for directing the progress of an organization. Openness: the ability to listen to other points of view without prejudging or discouraging them.